Radiotherapy FCPS new syllabus (Onco Pathology and cancer Biology)

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Radiotherapy FCPS new syllabus (Onco Pathology and cancer Biology)

This entry is part 6 of 7 in the series Radiotherapy FCPS syllabus

Onco Pathology and cancer Biology (72 marks, 36 questions) 


1. Principles of Tumor Biology:

Discusses the general principles of tumour biology, Defines and can distinguish between different types of growth disorder, e.g. dysplasia and carcinoma in situ, Describes the cell cycle, basic cell kinetics And control mechanism, Describes the mechanisms of spread, local invasion/migration, metastasis, Describes the effects of tumours: local (eg. pressure), distant (metastatic and non- metastatic), Discusses the importance of tumour vasculature and angiogenesis, Describes mechanisms of DNA damage and repair: Single strand DNA breaks: Base excision repair(BER), Nucleotide excision repair (NER), Mismatch repair (MMR); Double strand DNA breaks: Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and Homologous recombination, Described the potential role of cancer stem cells, Describes mechanism of cell death, e.g. apoptosis, autophagy and Describes the molecular targets for anti-cancer therapy.

2. Techniques in Molecular Biology:

Describes the principles and use of techniques in molecular biology Describes the principles and use of nucleic acid analyses, including electrophoresis, hybridization, blotting, PCR, sequencing, transfection, Describes the principles and use of microarray techniques, Describes the principles and use of transgenic model

3. Genetics of Normal and Malignant Cells:

Discusses the general principles of tumour biology, Describes normal chromosomal structure and function, normal gene transcription and its control, Describes normal DNA repair mechanisms, Describes polymorphisms, mini and microsatellites, Describes chromatin structure and function, Describes methylation, Discusses chromosomal and genetic changes in malignancy, point mutations, translocations, deletions, gene amplification and over-expression, Discusses oncogenes, proto-oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and their mode of action, describing well established examples in each class Describes protein-protein interactions.

4. Normal and aberrant Mechanisms of Cell growth Control:

Discusses the normal and aberrant mechanisms of cell growth control Discusses the control of normal cell growth and behavior, Contrasts autocrine, paracrine and endocrine growth factors, Discusses altered expression, function and control of these mechanisms in malignancy, Describes signal transduction (MAP kinases), Describes the role of cyclin kinases and Describes gene promoters and their activity in normal and malignant cells

5. Causation of Human cancers:

Discusses the causation of human cancers Describes environmental factors and influences, Discusses carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo, Describes viral carcinogenesis and viruses firmly associated with cancer (HPV, EBV etc.), Discusses radiation carcinogenesis including: Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation associated with carcinogenesis, DNA damage and repair (differing effects with various radiation types)

And Nucleotide excision repair, Genes and products associated with repair.

6. Oncological Signs and Symptoms Discusses the each tumour:

Epidemiology and etiology and natural history Clinical presentation, Characteristic imaging findings, Laboratory diagnosis of disease: Macroscopic and microscopic appearance of tumour compared with normal tissue of origin and differential diagnosis. Grading and staging systems in use, Immunohistochemistry, Tumour markers, Molecular techniques available (brief overview) and The candidate should be able to interpret a pathological report including pathologic prognostic and predictive factors.

7. Physiology of Oncologic symptoms and syndromes Discusses the each tumour, Pain, Nausea and vomiting

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